水平の風景 |Horizontality: a spatial concept of Shōbōgenzō

日本の伝統的な家の造りは、土間があり、床があり、その上に屋根が架かる。つまり、水平の層から成る。壁や戸などは「しつらえ」に属し、それを作る職人もちがう。垂直の構造体が最小化されているから、水平方向には視線を遮るものがない。遠景の稜線や上空にかかる月も、近景の枯山水も、さらに近景の茶器その他の道具類も、ひとつの空間に在って、大小を問わずみな対等に扱われる。対等–––これがもしかすると正法眼蔵の床であり、屋根なのではないか。かれはこう言っている。

しるべし、自己に無量の法あるなかに生あり死あるなり。

正法眼蔵第二十二「全機」

「無量」は無数、「法」は law じゃなくて、ものごと。生も死も、自分にとって存在するいろんな物事のうちの一つ、月や枯山水や茶器なんかと同じ、一箇のものごとだ。一生は一茶事であり、一杯の茶は一生に匹敵する。

  • 関連書:中川武『日本の家 ––– 空間・記憶・言葉』 TOTO出版 2004

 

The architectural space in pre-modern Japan was an ensemble of horizontal or semi-horizontal planes; floors and roofs. Vertical structures are visually minimized to thin pillars, leaving walls and sliding doors to be recognized as installation. Unlimited horizontal view encompasses the diverse objects –– mountains and the moon in the distance, courtyards and waters nearby, a flower vase and tea cups in the nearest –– within one continuous space, viewing them all as equal whatever their volumes may be. Equality, I would like to suggest, is a structural element of Dōgen’s written architecture. He wrote:

You should know that the life and the death are among the innumerable things occurring in you.

Ch.22 Undivided Activity

“You” are the space where innumerable things occur, including mountains and the moon, courtyards, tea cups, as well as the life and the death. Typological difference between them are cancelled and equalized. Your life is equal to a cup of tea, whereas a cup of tea is equal to your life.

  • Reference: Takeshi Nakagawa The Japanese House: In Space, Memory, and Language, 2006

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