空に生ふる樹木、雲に生ふる樹木 | Trees growing in the sky, growing in clouds.

井の中の蛙大海を知らずというけれど、人間がその蛙でない保証はない。蛙たちは電波望遠鏡を用いたり探査衛星を飛ばしたりして井戸の拡張に努めてはいるが、もちろん拡張された井戸も井戸であることに変わりはない。仏祖は井戸のはるか彼方に広がる大海を仏性海と名づけた。仏性とは覚性のこと、覚醒した蛙にしてはじめてその波の音を聴くことができる。井戸と仏性海の樹林とを比べて、道元はいう:

 

天上人間の樹林はるかに殊異あり

天上の樹林と地上の樹林はまったくちがう。

中国辺地の所生ひとしきにあらず

中心か周辺かでも同じではない。

海裏山間の草木みな不同なり

海の草木、山の草木も、みな異なる。

いはんや空におふる樹木あり 雲におふる樹木あり

それどころか、空に生える樹木があり、雲に生える樹木がある。

(正法眼蔵第四十六・無情説法)

世に無情説法なる説があって、樹林が風に鳴るのも、花が散り葉が落ちるのも、樹木(無情)が仏法を説いているにほかならないという。道元によれば、それは取るに足らない愚見である。せいぜい井戸の中の無情、その縁に生えた苔の類いが仏法を説いていると主張するにすぎない。もし無情説法をいうなら、仏性海の無情の説法にこそ耳を傾けよ。空の樹木、雲の樹木の説く大海の法を聴けと。

空樹雲樹は一種のシュール・レアリズムなのか、シュール・レアリズムは一種の仏法なのかということも、考えてみてもいいかもしれない。

 

We have an old proverb saying, “the frog in the well does not know the great ocean”. The “frogs” could be human beings. While they have spared no effort throughout their history in expanding the well with science and technologies such as radio telescopes and space probes, a bigger well is a well anyway.

Let Busshō-kai (Sea of buddha-nature) be the name for the great ocean lying far beyond the well. Only a limited number of awakened frogs hear the sound of its waves. On the trees growing in Busshō-kai in contrast to those in the well, Dōgen remarks as follows:

There is an obvious difference between trees in heaven and trees in the human world. Those that grow in China and those that grow elsewhere are not the same. Plants in the ocean and those on mountains differ greatly. What is more, there are trees growing in the sky and trees growing in clouds.

| “Insentient Beings Speak Dharma” in *Shōbōgenzō* Ch.46

Some people argued that the sound of trees, or the opening and falling of leaves and flowers, is insentient beings speaking dharma. They never studied buddha dharma, says Dōgen. What they saw as trees and leaves speaking dharma must actually have been just moss along the wall of the well, never dharma of the great ocean.

Think about the questions: Is the picture of “trees in the sky and in clouds” kind of surrealism? Is surrealism kind of buddha dharma?

 

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